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INCORPORATION AGREEMENT

We propose to form a company under the Business Corporations Act (BC) under the name
of ____________________ (the "Company").

We agree to take the number of shares in the Company set opposite our names:

Name of Shareholder

Signature of Shareholder

Number of Shares

Class of Shares

Date of Signing
YYYY/MM/DD

__________


 

Class A

2021-11-27




____________________ (the "Company")
Incorporation Number: BC

The Company has as its Articles the following Articles.

Name of Incorporator

Signature of Incorporator

Date of Signing
YYYY/MM/DD

__________


2021-11-27



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION
of
____________________
(the "Company")

Part 1 — Interpretation


  1. Definitions
  2. Without limiting Article 1.2, in these articles, unless the context requires otherwise:
    • “adjourned meeting” means the meeting to which a meeting is adjourned under Article 8.6 or 8.10;
    • “appropriate person” has the same meaning as in the Securities Transfer Act;
    • “board” and “directors” mean the directors or sole director of the Company for the time being;
    • “Business Corporations Act” means the Business Corporations Act, S.B.C. 2002, c.57, and includes its regulations;
    • “Interpretation Act” means the Interpretation Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 238;
    • “protected purchaser” has the same meaning as in the Securities Transfer Act;
    • “trustee”, in relation to a shareholder, means the personal or other legal representative of the shareholder, and includes a trustee in bankruptcy of the shareholder.

  3. Business Corporations Act definitions apply
  4. The definitions in the Business Corporations Act apply to these articles.


  5. Interpretation Act applies
  6. The Interpretation Act applies to the interpretation of these articles as if these articles were an enactment.


  7. Conflict in definitions
  8. If there is a conflict between a definition in the Business Corporations Act and a definition or rule in the Interpretation Act relating to a term used in these articles, the definition in the Business Corporations Act will prevail in relation to the use of the term in these articles.


  9. Conflict between articles and legislation
  10. If there is a conflict between these articles and the Business Corporations Act, the Business Corporations Act will prevail.



Part 2 — Shares and Share Certificates


  1. Form of share certificate
  2. Each share certificate issued by the Company must comply with, and be signed as required by, the Business Corporations Act.


  3. Right to share certificate
  4. Each shareholder is entitled, without charge, to one certificate representing the share or shares of each class or series of shares held by the shareholder.


  5. Sending of share certificate
  6. Any share certificate to which a shareholder is entitled may be sent to the shareholder by mail and neither the Company nor any agent is liable for any loss to the shareholder because the certificate sent is lost in the mail or stolen.


  7. Replacement of worn out or defaced certificate
  8. If the directors are satisfied that a share certificate is worn out or defaced, they must, on production to them of the certificate and on such other terms, if any, as they think fit,
    1. order the certificate to be cancelled, and
    2. issue a replacement share certificate.


  9. Replacement of lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken certificate
  10. If a person entitled to a share certificate claims that the share certificate has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Company must issue a new share certificate, if the person
    1. so requests before the Company has notice that the lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken share certificate has been acquired by a protected purchaser,
    2. provides the Company with an indemnity bond sufficient, in the judgment of the directors, to protect the Company from any loss that the Company may suffer by issuing a new certificate, and
    3. satisfies any other reasonable requirements imposed by the Company.

  11. Certificate not to be replaced after registration of transfer
  12. A person entitled to a share certificate may not assert against the Company a claim for a new share certificate under Article 2.5 if
    1. the share certificate has been lost, apparently destroyed or wrongfully taken and the person fails to notify the Company of that fact within a reasonable time after the person has notice of it, and
    2. the Company registers a transfer of the shares represented by the certificate before receiving a notice of the loss, apparent destruction or wrongful taking of the share certificate.

  13. Splitting share certificates
  14. If a shareholder surrenders a share certificate to the Company with a written request that the Company issue in the shareholder’s name 2 or more certificates, each representing a specified number of shares and in the aggregate representing the same number of shares as the certificate so surrendered, the Company must cancel the surrendered certificate and issue replacement share certificates in accordance with that request.



Part 3 — Issue of Shares


  1. Directors authorized to issue shares
  2. The directors may, subject to the rights of the holders of the issued shares of the Company, issue, allot, sell, grant options on or otherwise dispose of the unissued shares, and issued shares held by the Company, at the times, to the persons, including directors, in the manner, on the terms and conditions and for the issue prices that the directors, in their absolute discretion, may determine.


  3. One Class of Shares
  4. The Company is authorized to issue a single class of shares with the following rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions:
    1. Class A Common Voting shares, without nominal par value, the holders of which are entitled:
      1. to receive notice, attend, and vote at all meetings of shareholders; and
      2. to a dividend as fixed by the board of directors.
    2. In the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company or other distribution of the assets of the Company among shareholders for the purpose of winding up its affairs, the holders of the Class A Common Shares will be entitled to share equally, share for share, in the distribution of any remaining balance of the assets and properties of the Company


  5. Company need not recognize unregistered interests
  6. Except as required by law or these articles, the Company need not recognize or provide for any person’s interests in or rights to a share unless that person is the shareholder of the share.



Part 4 — Share Transfers


  1. Registering transfers
  2. If the Company has issued, or may be required to issue, a share certificate in respect of a share of the Company, a transfer of that share must not be registered unless the Company, or the transfer agent or registrar for the applicable class or series of shares, has received
    1. the share certificate, if any,
    2. a written instrument of transfer, which instrument of transfer may be on a separate document or on the share certificate, endorsed by
      1. the shareholder,
      2. any other appropriate person, or
      3. an agent who has actual authority to act on behalf of the shareholder or appropriate person, and
    3. any other evidence reasonably required by the Company, or by the transfer agent or registrar for the applicable class or series of shares, to prove
      1. the title of the transferor,
      2. the transferor’s right to transfer the share,
      3. that the endorsement is genuine and authorized, or
      4. that the transfer is rightful or is to a protected purchaser.

  3. Transfer fee
  4. There must be paid to the Company, in relation to the registration of any transfer, the amount determined by the directors.



Part 5 — Purchase of Shares


  1. Company authorized to purchase shares
  2. Subject to the special rights and restrictions attached to any class or series of shares, the Company may, if it is authorized to do so by the directors, purchase or otherwise acquire any of its shares.



Part 6 — Borrowing Powers


  1. Powers of directors
  2. The directors may from time to time on behalf of the Company
    1. borrow money in the manner and amount, on the security, from the sources and on the terms and conditions that they consider appropriate,
    2. issue bonds, debentures and other debt obligations either outright or as security for any liability or obligation of the Company or any other person,
    3. guarantee the repayment of money by any other person or the performance of any obligation of any other person, and
    4. mortgage or charge, whether by way of specific or floating charge, or give other security on the whole or any part of the present and future undertaking of the Company.



Part 7 — General Meetings


  1. Annual general meetings
  2. Unless an annual general meeting is deferred or waived in accordance with section 182 (2) (a) or (c) of the Business Corporations Act, the Company must hold its first annual general meeting within 18 months after the date on which it was incorporated or otherwise recognized, and after that must hold an annual general meeting at least once in each calendar year and not more than 15 months after the last annual general meeting.

  3. When annual general meeting is deemed to have been held
  4. If all of the shareholders who are entitled to vote at an annual general meeting consent by a unanimous resolution under section 182 (2) (b) of the Business Corporations Act to all of the business that is required to be transacted at that annual general meeting, the annual general meeting is deemed to have been held on the date selected, under section 182 (3) of the Business Corporations Act, in the unanimous resolution.

  5. Calling of shareholder meetings
  6. The directors may, whenever they think fit, call a meeting of shareholders.

  7. Special business
  8. If a meeting of shareholders is to consider special business within the meaning of Article 8.1, the notice of meeting must
    1. state the general nature of the special business, and
    2. if the special business includes considering, approving, ratifying, adopting or authorizing any document or the signing of or giving of effect to any document, have attached to it a copy of the document or state that a copy of the document will be available for inspection by shareholders
      1. at the Company’s records office, or at such other reasonably accessible location in British Columbia as is specified by the notice, and
      2. during statutory business hours on any one or more specified days before the day set for the holding of the meeting.



Part 8 — Proceedings at Meetings of Shareholders


  1. Special business
  2. At a meeting of shareholders, the following business is special business:
    1. at a meeting of shareholders that is not an annual general meeting, all business is special business except business relating to the conduct of or voting at the meeting;
    2. at an annual general meeting, all business is special business except for the following:
      1. business relating to the conduct of, or voting at, the meeting;
      2. consideration of any financial statements of the Company presented to the meeting;
      3. consideration of any reports of the directors or auditor;
      4. the setting or changing of the number of directors;
      5. the election or appointment of directors;
      6. the appointment of an auditor;
      7. the setting of the remuneration of an auditor;
      8. business arising out of a report of the directors not requiring the passing of a special resolution or an exceptional resolution.

  3. Quorum
  4. Subject to the special rights and restrictions attached to the shares of any class or series of shares, the quorum for the transaction of business at a meeting of shareholders is a person or persons who are, or who represent by proxy, shareholders who, in the aggregate, hold at least __________ percent of the issued shares entitled to be voted at the meeting.


  5. One shareholder may constitute quorum
  6. If there is only one shareholder entitled to vote at a meeting of shareholders,
    1. the quorum is one person who is, or who represents by proxy, that shareholder, and
    2. that shareholder, present in person or by proxy, may constitute the meeting.

  7. Other persons may attend
  8. The directors, the president, if any, the secretary, if any, and any lawyer or auditor for the Company are entitled to attend any meeting of shareholders, but if any of those persons does attend a meeting of shareholders, that person is not to be counted in the quorum, and is not entitled to vote at the meeting, unless that person is a shareholder or proxy holder entitled to vote at the meeting.

  9. Requirement of quorum
  10. No business, other than the election of a chair of the meeting and the adjournment of the meeting, may be transacted at any meeting of shareholders unless a quorum of shareholders entitled to vote is present at the commencement of the meeting.

  11. Lack of quorum
  12. If, within 1/2 hour from the time set for the holding of a meeting of shareholders, a quorum is not present,
    1. in the case of a general meeting convened by requisition of shareholders, the meeting is dissolved, and
    2. in the case of any other meeting of shareholders, the meeting stands adjourned to the same day in the next week at the same time and place.

  13. Lack of quorum at succeeding meeting
  14. If, at the meeting to which the first meeting referred to in Article 8.6 was adjourned, a quorum is not present within 1/2 hour from the time set for the holding of the meeting, the persons present and being, or representing by proxy, shareholders entitled to attend and vote at the meeting constitute a quorum.

  15. Chair
  16. The following individual is entitled to preside as chair at a meeting of shareholders:
    1. the chair of the board, if any;
    2. if the chair of the board is absent or unwilling to act as chair of the meeting, the president, if any.


  17. Alternate chair
  18. If, at any meeting of shareholders, there is no chair of the board or president present within 15 minutes after the time set for holding the meeting, or if the chair of the board and the president are unwilling to act as chair of the meeting, or if the chair of the board and the president have advised the secretary, if any, or any director present at the meeting, that they will not be present at the meeting, the directors present must choose one of their number to be chair of the meeting or if all of the directors present decline to take the chair or fail to so choose or if no director is present, the shareholders present in person or by proxy must choose any person present at the meeting to chair the meeting.

  19. Adjournments
  20. The chair of a meeting of shareholders may, and if so directed by the meeting must, adjourn the meeting from time to time and from place to place, but no business may be transacted at any adjourned meeting other than the business left unfinished at the meeting from which the adjournment took place.

  21. Notice of adjourned meeting
  22. It is not necessary to give any notice of an adjourned meeting or of the business to be transacted at an adjourned meeting of shareholders except that, when a meeting is adjourned for 30 days or more, notice of the adjourned meeting must be given as in the case of the original meeting.

  23. Motion need not be seconded
  24. No motion proposed at a meeting of shareholders need be seconded unless the chair of the meeting rules otherwise, and the chair of any meeting of shareholders is entitled to propose or second a motion.

  25. Manner of taking a poll
  26. Subject to Article 8.14, if a poll is duly demanded at a meeting of shareholders,
    1. the poll must be taken
      1. at the meeting, or within 7 days after the date of the meeting, as the chair of the meeting directs, and
      2. in the manner, at the time and at the place that the chair of the meeting directs,
    2. the result of the poll is deemed to be a resolution of and passed at the meeting at which the poll is demanded, and
    3. the demand for the poll may be withdrawn.

  27. Demand for a poll on adjournment
  28. A poll demanded at a meeting of shareholders on a question of adjournment must be taken immediately at the meeting.

  29. Demand for a poll not to prevent continuation of meeting
  30. The demand for a poll at a meeting of shareholders does not, unless the chair of the meeting so rules, prevent the continuation of a meeting for the transaction of any business other than the question on which a poll has been demanded.

  31. Poll not available in respect of election of chair
  32. No poll may be demanded in respect of the vote by which a chair of a meeting of shareholders is elected.

  33. Casting of votes on poll
  34. On a poll, a shareholder entitled to more than one vote need not cast all the votes in the same way.

  35. Chair must resolve dispute
  36. In the case of any dispute as to the admission or rejection of a vote given on a poll, the chair of the meeting must determine the same, and his or her determination made in good faith is final and conclusive.

  37. Chair has no second vote
  38. In case of an equality of votes, the chair of a meeting of shareholders does not, either on a show of hands or on a poll, have a casting or second vote in addition to the vote or votes to which the chair may be entitled as a shareholder.

  39. Declaration of result
  40. The chair of a meeting of shareholders must declare to the meeting the decision on every question in accordance with the result of the show of hands or the poll, as the case may be, and that decision must be entered in the minutes of the meeting.


  41. Remote Communication Meetings
    1. Remote communication means any electronic communication including conference telephone, video conference, the internet, or any other method currently available or developed in the future by which shareholders not present in the same physical location may simultaneously communicate with each other.
    2. In the sole and reasonable discretion of the board, a meeting of shareholders of the Company may be held at a specific location or may be held by any means of remote communication. Where a meeting will employ remote communication, one or more shareholders may participate by means of remote communication or the meeting may be held solely by means of remote communication at the sole discretion of the board. Where any remote communication is used in a Shareholder meeting, all shareholders must be provided a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and all shareholders participating in the meeting must be able to simultaneously hear each other during the meeting. All votes or other actions taken at the meeting by means of electronic transmission must be maintained as a matter of record by the Company. Participation in a meeting using any form of remote communication will constitute presence in person at the meeting.



Part 9 — Votes of Shareholders


  1. Voting rights
  2. Subject to any special rights or restrictions attached to any shares and to the restrictions imposed on joint registered holders of shares under Article 9.3,
    1. on a vote by show of hands, every person present who is a shareholder or proxy holder and entitled to vote at the meeting has one vote, and
    2. on a poll, every shareholder entitled to vote has one vote in respect of each share held by that shareholder that carries the right to vote on that poll and may exercise that vote either in person or by proxy.

  3. Trustee of shareholder may vote
  4. A person who is not a shareholder may vote on a resolution at a meeting of shareholders, whether on a show of hands or on a poll, and may appoint a proxy holder to act at the meeting in relation to that resolution, if, before doing so, the person satisfies the chair of the meeting at which the resolution is to be considered, or the directors, that the person is a trustee for a shareholder who is entitled to vote on the resolution.

  5. Votes by joint shareholders
  6. If there are joint shareholders registered in respect of any share,
    1. any one of the joint shareholders may vote at any meeting, either personally or by proxy, in respect of the share as if that joint shareholder were solely entitled to it, or
    2. if more than one of the joint shareholders is present at any meeting, personally or by proxy, the joint shareholder present whose name stands first on the central securities register in respect of the share is alone entitled to vote in respect of that share.

  7. Trustees as joint shareholders
  8. Two or more trustees of a shareholder in whose sole name any share is registered are, for the purposes of Article 9.3, deemed to be joint shareholders.

  9. Representative of a corporate shareholder
  10. If a corporation that is not a subsidiary of the Company is a shareholder, that corporation may appoint a person to act as its representative at any meeting of shareholders of the Company, and,
    1. for that purpose, the instrument appointing a representative must
      1. be received at the registered office of the Company or at any other place specified, in the notice calling the meeting, for the receipt of proxies, at least 2 business days before the day set for the holding of the meeting, or
      2. be provided, at the meeting, to the chair of the meeting, and
    2. if a representative is appointed under this Article,
      1. the representative is entitled to exercise in respect of and at that meeting the same rights on behalf of the corporation that the representative represents as that corporation could exercise if it were a shareholder who is an individual, including, without limitation, the right to appoint a proxy holder, and
      2. the representative, if present at the meeting, is to be counted for the purpose of forming a quorum and is deemed to be a shareholder present in person at the meeting.

  11. Proxy provisions do not apply to all companies
  12. Articles 9.7 to 9.13 do not apply to the Company if and for so long as it is a public company or a pre-existing reporting company.

  13. Appointment of proxy holder
  14. Every shareholder of the Company, including a corporation that is a shareholder but not a subsidiary of the Company, entitled to vote at a meeting of shareholders of the Company may, by proxy, appoint a proxy holder to attend and act at the meeting in the manner, to the extent and with the powers conferred by the proxy.

  15. Alternate proxy holders
  16. A shareholder may appoint one or more alternate proxy holders to act in the place of an absent proxy holder.

  17. When proxy holder need not be shareholder
  18. A person must not be appointed as a proxy holder unless the person is a shareholder, although a person who is not a shareholder may be appointed as a proxy holder if
    1. the person appointing the proxy holder is a corporation or a representative of a corporation appointed under Article 9.5,
    2. the Company has at the time of the meeting for which the proxy holder is to be appointed only one shareholder entitled to vote at the meeting, or
    3. the shareholders present in person or by proxy at and entitled to vote at the meeting for which the proxy holder is to be appointed, by a resolution on which the proxy holder is not entitled to vote but in respect of which the proxy holder is to be counted in the quorum, permit the proxy holder to attend and vote at the meeting.

  19. Form of proxy
  20. A proxy, whether for a specified meeting or otherwise, must be either in the following form or in any other form approved by the directors or the chair of the meeting:
                                                                                   (Name of Company)
    The undersigned, being a shareholder of the above named Company, hereby appoints ..........................................., or,
    failing that person, ..........................................., as proxy holder for the undersigned to attend, act and vote for and on behalf of the undersigned at the meeting of shareholders to be held on the ... .. day of... ................., .............. and at any adjournment of that meeting.

    Signed this ............. day of ...................., .............

    ..................................................................................................
    Signature of shareholder

  21. Provision of proxies
  22. A proxy for a meeting of shareholders must
    1. be received at the registered office of the Company or at any other place specified, in the notice calling the meeting, for the receipt of proxies, at least the number of business days specified in the notice, or if no number of days is specified, 2 business days, before the day set for the holding of the meeting, or
    2. unless the notice provides otherwise, be provided, at the meeting, to the chair of the meeting.

  23. Revocation of proxies
  24. Subject to Article 9.13, every proxy may be revoked by an instrument in writing that is
    1. received at the registered office of the Company at any time up to and including the last business day before the day set for the holding of the meeting at which the proxy is to be used, or
    2. provided at the meeting to the chair of the meeting.

  25. Revocation of proxies must be signed
  26. An instrument referred to in Article 9.12 must be signed as follows:
    1. if the shareholder for whom the proxy holder is appointed is an individual, the instrument must be signed by the shareholder or his or her trustee;
    2. if the shareholder for whom the proxy holder is appointed is a corporation, the instrument must be signed by the corporation or by a representative appointed for the corporation under Article 9.5.

  27. Validity of proxy votes
  28. A vote given in accordance with the terms of a proxy is valid despite the death or incapacity of the shareholder giving the proxy and despite the revocation of the proxy or the revocation of the authority under which the proxy is given, unless notice in writing of that death, incapacity or revocation is received
    1. at the registered office of the Company, at any time up to and including the last business day before the day set for the holding of the meeting at which the proxy is to be used, or
    2. by the chair of the meeting, before the vote is taken.

  29. Production of evidence of authority to vote
  30. The chair of any meeting of shareholders may, but need not, inquire into the authority of any person to vote at the meeting and may, but need not, demand from that person production of evidence as to the existence of the authority to vote.

  31. Voting Trusts and Other Voting Agreements
    1. Two or more shareholders may, by agreement in writing, create a voting trust by depositing their shares with a voting trustee, who will have the authority to vote the shares in accordance with the terms and conditions of the voting trust agreement. To be valid, the voting trustee must deliver copies of the list of shareholders and the voting trust agreement to the Principal Office of the Corporation. Upon receiving the voting trust agreement, the Company will issue new share certificates in the name of the trustee and cancel the old share certificates. The new share certificates issued will state that they are issued pursuant to a voting trust agreement.
    2. Any amendment to a voting trust agreement will be made by a written agreement, a copy of which will be filed with the Principal Office of the Corporation.
    3. The right of inspection of any voting trust agreement or related amendment by a shareholder of record or a holder of a voting trust certificate, in person or by agent, will be the same right of inspection that applies to the securities register of the Company.
    4. An agreement between two or more shareholders, if in writing and signed by the parties to the agreement, may provide that in exercising any voting rights, the shares held by them will be voted as provided by the agreement, or as the parties may agree, or as determined in accordance with a procedure agreed upon by them.
    5. The above provisions concerning voting trusts and voting agreements will not be deemed to invalidate any voting or other agreement among shareholders or any irrevocable proxy which is not otherwise illegal.



Part 10 — Election and Removal of Directors


  1. Number of directors
  2. One director will be appointed as the Company's first director. The Company must have a board of directors consisting of
    1. subject to paragraph (b), one director, or
    2. the number of directors set by ordinary resolution of the shareholders.


  3. Change in number of directors
  4. If the number of directors is changed by the shareholders under Article 10.1 (b),
    1. the change is effective whether or not previous notice of the resolution was given, and
    2. the shareholders may elect, or appoint by ordinary resolution, the directors needed to fill any vacancies in the board of directors that result from that change.

  5. Election of directors
  6. At every annual general meeting,
    1. the shareholders entitled to vote at the annual general meeting for the election or appointment of directors must elect or appoint a board of directors consisting of the number of directors for the time being required under these articles,
    2. all the directors cease to hold office immediately before the election or appointment of directors under paragraph (a), but are eligible for re-election or reappointment, and
    3. shareholders may use cumulative voting elections when electing directors.

  7. Failure to elect or appoint directors
  8. If the Company fails to hold an annual general meeting in accordance with the Business Corporations Act or fails, at an annual general meeting, to elect or appoint any directors, the directors then in office continue to hold office until the earlier of
    1. the date on which the failure is remedied, and
    2. the date on which they otherwise cease to hold office under the Business Corporations Act or these articles.

  9. Additional directors
  10. Despite Articles 10.1 and 10.2, the directors may appoint one or more additional directors, who shall hold office for a term expiring not later than the close of the next annual general meeting of shareholders, but the number of additional directors appointed under this Article must not at any time exceed
    1. 1/3 of the number of first directors, if, at the time of the appointments, one or more of the first directors have not yet completed their first term of office, or
    2. in any other case, 1/3 of the number of the current directors who were elected or appointed as directors other than under this Article.

  11. Directors’ acts valid despite vacancy
  12. An act or proceeding of the directors is not invalid merely because fewer than the number of directors required by Article 10.1 are in office.



Part 11 — Proceedings of Directors


  1. Meetings of directors
  2. The directors may meet together for the conduct of business, adjourn and otherwise regulate their meetings as they think fit, and meetings of the board held at regular intervals may be held at the place, at the time and on the notice, if any, that the board may by resolution from time to time determine.

  3. Chair of meetings
  4. Meetings of directors are to be chaired by
    1. the chair of the board, if any,
    2. in the absence of the chair of the board, the president, if any, if the president is a director, or
    3. any other director chosen by the directors if
      1. neither the chair of the board nor the president, if a director, is present at the meeting within 15 minutes after the time set for holding the meeting,
      2. neither the chair of the board nor the president, if a director, is willing to chair the meeting, or
      3. the chair of the board and the president, if a director, have advised the secretary, if any, or any other director, that they will not be present at the meeting.

  5. Voting at meetings
  6. Questions arising at any meeting of directors are to be decided by a majority of votes and, in the case of an equality of votes, the chair of the meeting does not have a second or casting vote.

  7. Who may call extraordinary meetings
  8. A director may, and the secretary, if any, on request of a director must, call a meeting of the board at any time.

  9. Notice of extraordinary meetings
  10. Subject to Articles 11.6 and 11.7, if a meeting of the board is called under Article 11.4, reasonable notice of that meeting, specifying the place, date and time of that meeting, must be given to each of the directors
    1. by mail addressed to the director’s address as it appears on the books of the Company or to any other address provided to the Company by the director for this purpose,
    2. by leaving it at the director’s prescribed address or at any other address provided to the Company by the director for this purpose, or
    3. orally, by delivery of written notice or by telephone, voice mail, e-mail, fax or any other method of legibly transmitting messages.

  11. When notice not required
  12. It is not necessary to give notice of a meeting of the directors to a director if
    1. the meeting is to be held immediately following a meeting of shareholders at which that director was elected or appointed or is the meeting of the directors at which that director is appointed, or
    2. the director has filed a waiver under Article 11.8.

  13. Meeting valid despite failure to give notice
  14. The accidental omission to give notice of any meeting of directors to any director, or the non-receipt of any notice by any director, does not invalidate any proceedings at that meeting.

  15. Waiver of notice of meetings
  16. Any director may file with the Company a document signed by the director waiving notice of any past, present or future meeting of the directors and may at any time withdraw that waiver with respect to meetings of the directors held after that withdrawal.

  17. Effect of waiver
  18. After a director files a waiver under Article 11.8 with respect to future meetings of the directors, and until that waiver is withdrawn, notice of any meeting of the directors need not be given to that director unless the director otherwise requires in writing to the Company.

  19. Quorum
  20. The quorum necessary for the transaction of the business of the directors is __________ percent of the total number of directors eligible to vote.

  21. If only one director
  22. If, in accordance with Article 10.1, the number of directors is one, the quorum necessary for the transaction of the business of the directors is one director, and that director may constitute a meeting.



Part 12 — Committees of Directors


  1. Appointment of committees
  2. The directors may, by resolution,
    1. appoint one or more committees consisting of the director or directors that they consider appropriate,
    2. delegate to a committee appointed under paragraph (a) any of the directors’ powers, except
      1. the power to fill vacancies in the board,
      2. the power to change the membership of, or fill vacancies in, any committee of the board, and
      3. the power to appoint or remove officers appointed by the board, and
    3. make any delegation referred to in paragraph (b) subject to the conditions set out in the resolution.

  3. Obligations of committee
  4. Any committee formed under Article 12.1, in the exercise of the powers delegated to it, must
    1. conform to any rules that may from time to time be imposed on it by the directors, and
    2. report every act or thing done in exercise of those powers to the earliest meeting of the directors to be held after the act or thing has been done.

  5. Powers of board
  6. The board may, at any time,
    1. revoke the authority given to a committee, or override a decision made by a committee, except as to acts done before such revocation or overriding,
    2. terminate the appointment of, or change the membership of, a committee, and
    3. fill vacancies in a committee.

  7. Committee meetings
  8. Subject to Article 12.2 (a),
    1. the members of a directors’ committee may meet and adjourn as they think proper,
    2. a directors’ committee may elect a chair of its meetings but, if no chair of the meeting is elected, or if at any meeting the chair of the meeting is not present within 15 minutes after the time set for holding the meeting, the directors present who are members of the committee may choose one of their number to chair the meeting,
    3. a majority of the members of a directors’ committee constitutes a quorum of the committee, and
    4. questions arising at any meeting of a directors’ committee are determined by a majority of votes of the members present, and in case of an equality of votes, the chair of the meeting has no second or casting vote.



Part 13 — Officers


  1. Appointment of Officers
  2. The officers of the Company will consist of the president, the treasurer and the secretary who will each be initially appointed by the board at the first meeting of the directors or as soon after the first meeting of the directors as possible, if officers have not already been appointed and any appointee may hold one or more offices.


  3. Term of Office
  4. Each officer will hold office until a successor is duly appointed and qualified or until the officer's death or until the officer resigns or is removed as provided in these articles.


  5. Removal
  6. Any officer or agent appointed by the board or by the incorporators may be removed by the board at any time with or without cause, provided, however, any contractual rights of that person, if any, will not be prejudiced by the removal.


  7. Vacancies
  8. The board may fill a vacancy in any office because of death, resignation, removal, disqualification, or otherwise.


  9. President
  10. Subject to the control and supervisory powers of the board and its delegate, the powers and duties of the president will be:
    1. to have the general management and supervision, direction and control of the business and affairs of the Company;
    2. to preside at all meetings of the shareholders when the chair of the board is absent;
    3. to call meetings of the shareholders to be held at such times and at such places as the president will deem proper within the limitations prescribed by law or by these articles;
    4. to ensure that all orders and resolutions of the board are effectively carried out;
    5. to maintain records of and certify, whenever necessary, all proceedings of the board and the shareholders;
    6. to put the signature of the Company to all deeds, conveyances, mortgages, guarantees, leases, obligations, bonds, certificates and other papers and instruments in writing which have been authorized by the board or which, in the opinion of the president, should be executed on behalf of the Company; to sign certificates for the Company's shares; and, subject to the instructions of the board, to have general charge of the property of the Company and to supervise and manage all officers, agents and employees of the Company; and
    7. to perform all other duties and carry out other responsibilities as determined by the board.


  11. Treasurer
  12. Subject to the control and supervisory powers of the board and its delegate, the powers and duties of the treasurer will be:
    1. to keep accurate financial records for the Company;
    2. to deposit all money, drafts and cheques in the name of and to the credit of the Company in the banks and depositories designated by the board;
    3. to endorse for deposit all notes, cheques, drafts received by the Company as instructed by the board, making proper vouchers for them;
    4. to disburse corporate funds and issue cheques and drafts in the name of the Company, as instructed by the board;
    5. to submit to the president and the board, as requested, an account of all transactions by the treasurer and the financial condition of the Company;
    6. to prepare and submit to the board annual reports detailing the financial status of the Company; and
    7. to perform all other duties and carry out other responsibilities as prescribed by the board or the president.


  13. Secretary
  14. The secretary will perform the following duties:
    1. prepare the minutes of the meetings of the shareholders and meetings of the board and keep those minutes in one or more books provided for that purpose;
    2. authenticate the records of the Company as will from time to time be required;
    3. ensure that all notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these Company or as required by law;
    4. act as custodian of the corporate records and of the corporate seal, if any, and ensure that the seal of the Company, if any, is affixed to all documents the execution of which on behalf of the Company under its seal is duly authorized;
    5. keep a register of the post office address of each shareholder;
    6. sign, along with the president, certificates for shares of the Company, the issuance of which will have been authorized by resolution of the board;
    7. have general charge of the list of shareholders of the Company; and
    8. perform all duties incidental to the office of secretary and any other duties as from time to time may be delegated to the secretary by the president or the board.



Part 14 — Disclosure of Interest of Directors


  1. Other office of director
  2. A director may hold any office or place of profit with the Company (other than the office of auditor of the Company) in addition to his or her office of director for the period and on the terms (as to remuneration or otherwise) that the directors may determine.

  3. No disqualification
  4. No director or intended director is disqualified by his or her office from contracting with the Company either with regard to the holding of any office or place of profit the director holds with the Company or as vendor, purchaser or otherwise.

  5. Professional services by director or officer
  6. Subject to compliance with the provisions of the Business Corporations Act, a director or officer of the Company, or any corporation or firm in which that individual has an interest, may act in a professional capacity for the Company, except as auditor of the Company, and the director or officer or such corporation or firm is entitled to remuneration for professional services as if that individual were not a director or officer.

  7. Accountability
  8. A director or officer may be or become a director, officer or employee of, or may otherwise be or become interested in, any corporation, firm or entity in which the Company may be interested as a shareholder or otherwise, and, subject to compliance with the provisions of the Business Corporations Act, the director or officer is not accountable to the Company for any remuneration or other benefits received by him or her as director, officer or employee of, or from his or her interest in, such other corporation, firm or entity.

  9. Loans to Employees and Officers
  10. The Company may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist, any officer or employee of the Company or of its subsidiary, including any officer or employee who is a director of the Company or any subsidiary of the Company, whenever, in the opinion of the directors, the loan, guarantee or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the Company. The loan, guarantee or other assistance may be with or without interest, and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the board will approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of the Company. Nothing contained in this section is to be construed so as to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guarantee or warranty of the Company at common law or under any applicable statute.



Part 15 — Indemnification


  1. Indemnification of directors
  2. The directors must cause the Company to indemnify its directors and former directors, and their respective heirs and personal or other legal representatives to the greatest extent permitted by Division 5 of Part 5 of the Business Corporations Act.

  3. Deemed contract
  4. Each director is deemed to have contracted with the Company on the terms of the indemnity referred to in Article 15.1.



Part 16 — Dividends


  1. Declaration of dividends
  2. Subject to the rights, if any, of shareholders holding shares with special rights as to dividends, the directors may from time to time declare and authorize payment of any dividends the directors consider appropriate.

  3. No notice required
  4. The directors need not give notice to any shareholder of any declaration under Article 16.1.

  5. Directors may determine when dividend payable
  6. Any dividend declared by the directors may be made payable on such date as is fixed by the directors.

  7. Dividends to be paid in accordance with number of shares
  8. Subject to the rights of shareholders, if any, holding shares with special rights as to dividends, all dividends on shares of any class or series of shares must be declared and paid according to the number of such shares held.

  9. Manner of paying dividend
  10. A resolution declaring a dividend may direct payment of the dividend wholly or partly by the distribution of specific assets or of paid up shares or fractional shares, bonds, debentures or other debt obligations of the Company, or in any one or more of those ways, and, if any difficulty arises in regard to the distribution, the directors may settle the difficulty as they consider expedient, and, in particular, may set the value for distribution of specific assets.

  11. Dividend bears no interest
  12. No dividend bears interest against the Company.

  13. Fractional dividends
  14. If a dividend to which a shareholder is entitled includes a fraction of the smallest monetary unit of the currency of the dividend, that fraction may be disregarded in making payment of the dividend and that payment represents full payment of the dividend.

  15. Payment of dividends
  16. Any dividend or other distribution payable in cash in respect of shares may be paid by cheque, made payable to the order of the person to whom it is sent, and mailed
    1. subject to paragraphs (b) and (c), to the address of the shareholder,
    2. subject to paragraph (c), in the case of joint shareholders, to the address of the joint shareholder whose name stands first on the central securities register in respect of the shares, or
    3. to the person and to the address as the shareholder or joint shareholders may direct in writing.

  17. Receipt by joint shareholders
  18. If several persons are joint shareholders of any share, any one of them may give an effective receipt for any dividend, bonus or other money payable in respect of the share.



Part 17 — Accounting Records


  1. Recording of financial affairs
  2. The board must cause adequate accounting records to be kept to record properly the financial affairs and condition of the Company and to comply with the provisions of the Business Corporations Act.



Part 18 — Execution of Instruments under Seal


  1. Who may attest seal
  2. The Company’s seal, if any, must not be impressed on any record except when that impression is attested by the signature or signatures of
    1. any 2 directors,
    2. any officer, together with any director,
    3. if the Company only has one director, that director, or
    4. any one or more directors or officers or persons as may be determined by resolution of the directors.

  3. Sealing copies
  4. For the purpose of certifying under seal a true copy of any resolution or other document, the seal must be impressed on that copy and, despite Article 18.1, may be attested by the signature of any director or officer.



Part 19 — Notices


  1. Notice to joint shareholders
  2. A notice, statement, report or other record may be provided by the Company to the joint registered shareholders of a share by providing the notice to the joint registered shareholder whose name stands first on the central securities register in respect of the share.

  3. Notice to trustees
  4. If a person becomes entitled to a share as a result of the death, bankruptcy or incapacity of a shareholder, the Company may provide a notice, statement, report or other record to that person by
    1. mailing the record, addressed to that person
      1. by name, by the title of representative of the deceased or incapacitated shareholder, by the title of trustee of the bankrupt shareholder or by any similar description, and
      2. at the address, if any, supplied to the Company for that purpose by the person claiming to be so entitled, or
    2. if an address referred to in paragraph (a) (ii) has not been supplied to the Company, by giving the notice in a manner in which it might have been given if the death, bankruptcy or incapacity had not occurred.



Part 20 — Restriction on Share Transfer


  1. Application
  2. Article 20.2 does not apply to the Company if and for so long as it is a public company or a pre-existing reporting company.

  3. Consent required for transfer
  4. No shares may be sold, transferred or otherwise disposed of without the consent of the directors and the directors are not required to give any reason for refusing to consent to any such sale, transfer or other disposition.
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